Wednesday, May 14, 2014

Pareto (Prinsip - Diagram - Analysis - How To)


#Indonesia Wikipedia
Prinsip Pareto

Prinsip Pareto (bahasa Inggris:The Pareto principle) (juga dikenal sebagai aturan 80-20[1]) menyatakan bahwa untuk banyak kejadian, sekitar 80% daripada efeknya disebabkan oleh 20% dari penyebabnya. Prinsip ini diajukkan oleh pemikir manajemen bisnis Joseph M. Juran, yang menamakannya berdasarkan ekonom Italia Vilfredo Pareto (15 July 1848 – 19 August 1923), yang pada 1906 mengamati bahwa 80% dari pendapatan di Italia dimiliki oleh 20% dari jumlah populasi.

Dalam implementasinya, prinsip 80/20 ini dapat diterapkan untuk hampir semua hal:

  • 80% dari keluhan pelanggan muncul dari 20% dari produk atau jasa.
  • 80% dari keterlambatan jadwal timbul dari 20% dari kemungkinan penyebab penundaan.
  • 20% dari produk atau jasa mencapai 80% dari keuntungan.
  • 20% dari tenaga penjualan memproduksi 80% dari pendapatan perusahaan.
  • 20% dari cacat sistem menyebabkan 80% masalah.



#English Wikipedia
Pareto Chart

A Pareto chart, named after Vilfredo Pareto, is a type of chart that contains both bars and a line graph, where individual values are represented in descending order by bars, and the cumulative total is represented by the line.

The left vertical axis is the frequency of occurrence, but it can alternatively represent cost or another important unit of measure. The right vertical axis is the cumulative percentage of the total number of occurrences, total cost, or total of the particular unit of measure. Because the reasons are in decreasing order, the cumulative function is a concave function. To take the example above, in order to lower the amount of late arriving by 78%, it is sufficient to solve the first three issues.

The purpose of the Pareto chart is to highlight the most important among a (typically large) set of factors. In quality control, it often represents the most common sources of defects, the highest occurring type of defect, or the most frequent reasons for customer complaints, and so on. Wilkinson (2006) devised an algorithm for producing statistically based acceptance limits (similar to confidence intervals) for each bar in the Pareto chart.

These charts can be generated by simple spreadsheet programs, such as OpenOffice.org Calc and Microsoft Excel and specialized statistical software tools as well as online quality charts generators.

The Pareto chart is one of the seven basic tools of quality control.


#IlmuSDM Wordpress

Apa itu diagram Pareto? Diagram Pareto adalah serangkaian seri diagram batang yang menggambarkan frekuensi atau pengaruh dari proses/keadaan/masalah. Diagram diatur mulai dari yang paling tinggi sampai paling rendah dari kiri ke kanan. Diagram batang bagian kiri relatif lebih penting daripada sebelah kanannya. Nama diagram Pareto diambil dari prinsip Pareto, yang mengatakan bahwa 80% gangguan berasal dari 20% masalah yang ada.

Diagram Pareto sudah lama digunakan dalam quality management tools, sebagai alat untuk menginvestigasi data-data masalah yang ada kemudian dipecahkan ke dalam kategori tertentu, sehingga dapat diketahui frekuensinya untuk setiap kejadian/proses. Dengan pareto, anda dapat mengantarkan sejumlah data ke dalam bentuk yang lebih baik dan terbaca lebih mudah, sehingga dapat diambil kesimpulan dan prioritas penyelesaian tugas.


#WikiHow

Pareto Analysis is a simple technique for prioritizing potential causes by identifying the problems. The article gives instructions on how to create a Pareto chart using MS Excel 2010

Steps :


1. Identify and List Problems. Make a list of all of the data elements/work items that you need to prioritize using the Pareto principal. This should look something like this.

If you don't have data to practice, then use the data shown in the image and see if you make the same Pareto chart, which is shown here.



2. Arrange different Categories in Descending Order, in our case “Hair Fall Reason” based on “Frequency”.


3. Add a column for Cumulative Frequency. Use formulae similar to what is shown in the figure.

Now your table should look like this.





4. Calculate total of numbers shown in Frequency and add a column for Percentage.

Ensure the Total should be same as the last value in Cumulative Frequency column.




Now your data table is complete and ready to create the Pareto chart. Your data table should look like this.




5. Go to Insert-->Column and select the 2-D Column chart.



6. A blank Chart area should now appear on the Excel sheet. Right Click in the Chart area and Select Data. 



7. Select Column B1 to C9. Then put a comma (,) and select column E1 to E9.

This is one of the important step, extra care need to be taken to ensure correct data range is being selected for the Pareto.




8. Now, your Pareto Chart should look like this. Frequency is shown as Blue bars and Percentage is shown as Red bars.


9. Select one of the Percentage bars and right click. Click on “Change Series Chart Type” to “Line with Markers”.

Following screen should appear.




10. Now your chart should look like this.

Percentage bars are now changed to line-chart.





11. Select and right click on the Red Line chart for Percentage and Click on Format data series.

Now, Format Data Series pop-up will open, where you need to select "Secondary Axis".







12. Secondary "Y" axis will appear.

The only problem with this Pareto Chart is the fact that the secondary Y-axis is showing 120%. This needs to be corrected. You may or may not face this issue.
 


13. Select the Secondary Y-axis. Right click and click on "Format Axis" option shown as you right click.

Go to Axis Options in the "Format Data Series" dialog box and Change the value for "Maximum" to 1.0.




14 Your Pareto is complete and should look like this.

However, you can still go ahead and Add some final touch to your Pareto to make it more appealing.

Go to Chart Tools --> Layout. You can add Chart Title,Axis Title,Legend and Data Tables, if you want.

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